By mwp1, Jul 3 2016 11:57AM
1. the state or quality of being independent.
2. freedom from the control, influence, support, aid, or the like, of others.
not influenced or controlled by others in matters of opinion, conduct, etc.; thinking or acting for oneself:
not subject to another's authority or jurisdiction; autonomous; free:
3. not influenced by the thought or action of others:
4. not dependent; not depending or contingent upon something else for existence, operation, etc.
5. not relying on another or others for aid or support.
6. rejecting others' aid or support; refusing to be under obligation to others.
7. possessing a competency:
8. not dependent on anything else for function, validity, etc; separate:
1. enjoying personal rights or liberty, as a person who is not in slavery:
2. pertaining to or reserved for those who enjoy personal liberty:
3. existing under, characterized by, or possessing civil and political liberties that are, as a rule, constitutionally guaranteed by representative government:
4. enjoying political autonomy, as a people or country not under foreign rule; independent.
5. exempt from external authority, interference, restriction, etc., as a person or one's will, thought, choice, action, etc.; independent; unrestricted.
6. able to do something at will; at liberty: free to choose.
7. clear of obstructions or obstacles, as a road or corridor:
8. able to act at will; not under compulsion or restraint
9. having personal rights or liberty; not enslaved or confined. not subject (to) or restricted (by some regulation, constraint, etc); exempt:
We are surrounded with stories of strife — the 99 percent, black lives matter, blue lives matter, all lives matter, those for gay marriage and those against. Those in favor of gun control and those who feel regulation interferes with their Second Amendment right to bear arms. People are so deep-rooted in what they believe, they are not open to listening to any other view. Individuals seem to only read and listen to news and current affairs from sources that support their already formed belief system. What happened to civility in the discussion? Why can’t people disagree without being so ugly?
But sadly, it seems we’ve changed our stance from being inclusive. It appears we are living in a tumultuous time of fear and rage. Some people fear that the "lower classes" are trespassing on their territory (literally and figuratively), while the immigrant population is trying to earn, or defend, their “place at the table.” This is perhaps not unlike the political climate of the American Revolution.
Hamilton was alone among the “founding fathers” in understanding that the world was witnessing two revolutions simultaneously. One was the political transformation; the other was the economic rise of modern capitalism, with its globalizing networks of production, trade and finance. We, too, are witnessing these same revolutions.
So, what’s the answer? Well, like the story of Hamilton that will be dictated by history — how people will view the election of 2016 — who knows? One thing we can all agree on, is that it’s a pivotal moment in our history no matter the outcome.
As we prepare to celebrate our nation’s independence on July 4th, let’s take a moment to reflect on the freedoms that we enjoy here in America.
Our founding fathers recognized in our nation’s Declaration of Independence, “we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights….” This foundation is critical to our freedom because it recognizes and declares that our rights aren’t granted to us by government, but instead are granted to us by our Creator. Government can’t take away God-given rights.
In our Bill of Rights, our founding fathers articulated the individual freedoms that our government can’t infringe upon. The First Amendment begins with my favorite and the one that I believe our founding fathers found most important, “Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ….” In this day and age, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that our country was founded by pilgrims fleeing religious persecution because they chose to reject the religion required by their government and follow the dictates of their own conscience. The memory of government persecution for publicly worshiping God was enough for our founding fathers to say never again, and then create a country where that would be true.
If we look around the world today, we can see the wisdom of our founding fathers. According to research verified by the International Institute of Religious Freedom, last year was the most violent for Christians in modern history with 7,100 Christians murdered in 2015 for “faith-related reasons.”
Just last week in Russia, the Duma (Upper House) and Federation Council (Lower House) passed legislation that will prevent citizens from sharing their faith unless they have secured a permit from the government. Even if granted a permit, an individual will only be able to share their faith in their church. This means citizens won’t be able to discuss their faith in a public park, over coffee at Starbucks, online through social media or email, or even in the privacy of their own homes.
Thank God our founding fathers established freedom of religion, and not the Russian version of freedom from religion.
Next, when I consider the freedoms that distinguish America as the freest nation in the world, the freedom secured by our Second Amendment, “the right of people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed” comes to mind.
In declaring our inalienable rights to include life and liberty, our founding fathers understood that in order to provide what Hamilton termed, “the original right of self-defense” and to protect ourselves from tyranny from future governments, men had to be able to protect themselves.
The importance of our freedom to bear arms can be seen when you consider that since 9/11, Radical Islam has continued to attack America in Fort Hood, Boston, San Bernardino and now Orlando. While Americans may be threatened from abroad, thanks to the 2nd Amendment, we will never be defenseless.
Regarding government tyranny, just look at the historical record. In 1938, Germany issued “Regulations Against Jewish Possession of Weapons.” Then, from 1939–1945, the Nazi government executed over six million Jews. This is a pattern that has been repeated throughout history, by Stalin in the Soviet Union, Mao in China and Castro in Cuba. A disarmed citizenry is one that will be controlled by government, rather than one that will control its government.
Fourth of July is filled with parades, cookouts, picnics and fireworks. However, let’s not forget to celebrate the importance of these freedoms.
“Please just honor and remember the fallen who gave the ultimate sacrifice.”
But there is noticeably less effort to preserve Independence Day’s distinct meaning. At many parades and gatherings, the Fourth of July looks like another all-purpose, vaguely military holiday, where—somewhere between food and fireworks—we sing “God Bless America” and take a moment to thank our veterans for keeping us free.
Now, any day is a good day to thank a veteran for his or her service. Still, I think we’re missing something important about Independence Day—and about freedom itself.
A Nation Is Born
First, in the spirit of remembering what holidays are all about, let’s state the obvious. Our national holiday commemorates July 4, 1776, when the Continental Congress—representing the citizens of 13 colonies—adopted a document declaring that all men are “endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights” and that “to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.” After establishing at length that the king had been destroying these rights, the document concluded that “these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown.”
This declaration was monumental. It meant the war that had already been raging for more than a year was more than a mere protest by the king’s subjects; it was a full-out rebellion, and its goal was independence. The American people would hereafter not just be fighting against certain policies of the king, they would be fighting for something: liberty, and a nation of their own.
To gain that liberty, the 56 men who signed the Declaration of Independence—and all the people they represented—would have to assume a tremendous risk. They knew the conflict would now be in even deadlier earnest, and that war would be waged right in their midst, among their homes, villages, and farms. They knew their very lives and the lives of their families would be in danger. Yet they decided, as Patrick Henry had famously a year earlier, that death itself was better than life without liberty.
We should note that this decision was primarily made by civilians. Most of the signers of the Declaration were not soldiers, nor were most of the people they represented. Some would go on to join the rag-tag Continental Army, while others simply bore the deprivations and horrors of a landscape torn by war. In many cases, their lives and fortunes took a sharp turn for the worse. In his book “1776,” historian David McCullough recounts how British and German soldiers invading and ransacking Long Island, New York, marveled at the prosperity they saw among the colonists there. They were shocked that such well-fed people would choose to rebel against their government. Clearly, these Americans placed a high value on freedom, and they were willing to pay dearly for it.
Of course, those who paid the highest price were the men who took up arms and became soldiers. Without George Washington and his army, Thomas Jefferson’s magnum opus would have amounted to nothing more than words on paper. But without the ideals expressed in the Declaration—and a people willing to sacrifice for those ideals—there would have been no cause for which to fight. Thus we remember the adoption of a document, not a military victory, as the moment our nation was born.
Give Me Liberty or Give Me . . . Never Mind
Today, 240 years after that fateful, sweltering day in Philadelphia, it’s hard to imagine modern Americans making a similar decision to risk everything for the sake of liberty. These days safety is our god, and we’ll gladly sacrifice freedom on its altar.
Take the recent debate over gun control, for example. Despite the fact that America’s gun homicide rate has dropped by nearly 50 percent over the past decade, many are so shaken by incidents like the Orlando terrorist attack that they’re clamoring to toss the Second, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments on the scrap heap of history. Of course, the prospect of a mass shooting is frightening for anyone to contemplate. But it’s a statistically remote danger compared to the all-encompassing threat of a government empowered to strip its citizens of rights without due process of law. The armed commoners standing on Lexington Green in 1775, defying a military superpower to come confiscate their weapons, understood this.
Our modern “safety first” mentality extends to fiscal matters, too. We say we want economic freedom, but we don’t want the inherent risk that such freedom entails. Instead, we’d rather have government bailing out our failing industries. We want the central bank tightly controlling interest rates. We want the state to care for us in our old age, give us health care and make other people pay for it, make sure we have a “living wage,” pay for our kids’ college, and take care of the poor so we don’t have to. We’re scared to do without all these government programs we’ve come to expect, even if it means our freedoms are eroded and we’re sold into indentured servitude in the form of crippling debt. Safety first!
Frankly, far too many of us think nothing of sending someone else’s son, husband, sister, or mother to “defend freedom overseas” while remaining unwilling to take a single risk ourselves, no matter how small, in order to defend freedom here at home. Saying “thank you” to our military on holidays rings a bit hollow when we treat the liberty for which they fight with contempt in our daily lives.
Freedom Requires Bravery from Us All
That brings us back to what we’re missing about Independence Day. July 4 should be a celebration of the ideals that formed this nation, and a reminder that all Americans—not just the military—have a role to play in defending them. When we downplay the role of ordinary civilians in safeguarding freedom, we also downplay their responsibility.
Our fighting men and women take an oath to “support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic.” But it isn’t only up to them. It can’t be. Today, the direst threats to the Constitution of the United States don’t come violently from outside our borders, but peaceably from within. In a representative government, we the people are chiefly responsible to support and defend the Constitution—in the way we vote, the policies for which we advocate, and the way we live in our communities.
Benjamin Franklin once famously said that the Constitutional Convention had created “a republic, if you can keep it.” At the time, he was speaking not to a professional soldier, but to an ordinary American woman. The charge to “keep” the republic belongs to us all. It will require bravery not just from the small segment who are in the armed forces, but from every single one of us.
Make no mistake: freedom is risky. Freedom can be messy. But it is always, always the best way to live. As Thomas Jefferson wrote in 1791, “I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than those attending too small a degree of it.” We fool ourselves if we believe that trading away our liberty—won for us at such a high cost—will bring the safety and prosperity we seek.
So this Fourth of July, by all means, thank a veteran or active-duty service member. But also take some time to read the Declaration of Independence and ponder the national spirit embodied by those words. There’s a reason Francis Scott Key, writing the poem which later became our national anthem, called America “the land of the free and the home of the brave.” These two traits—freedom and bravery—once defined us as a people. The former is impossible to maintain without the latter. I pray that somewhere deep in our national DNA, we still have the capacity for both.
Read below more on Independence Day
Independence Day | 4th July | Fourth of July
Independence Day 2016
Independence Day is a federal holiday in the US. In the United States, Independence Day, or more commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday to commemorate the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Independence Day is commonly associated with barbecues, picnics, concerts, carnivals, parades, fireworks,family reunions, political speeches and ceremonies.
There are also many other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States.
Independence Day celebrations often take place outdoors as it is summer in the US. Families will often celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue with family members, and they take advantage of the day off and when Independence Day falls on a Monday or Friday they take advantage of a long weekend to gather with relatives or friends.
4th-of-july-usa-federal-holidayDecorations including balloons, streamers and clothing are generally colored red, white, and blue, the colors of the American Flag.
Parades are normally held in the morning, while fireworks displays occur in the evening at such places as parks, fairgrounds, near beaches and in town squares.
Independence Day in the United States – the Biggest Birthday Celebration in the World
Independence Day in the United States is by far the most important national holiday of the year.
While the fanfare is dwarfed by mega holidays like Christmas and New Year’s Eve, Independence Day is one of those days that the country and its people need, especially in complicated times such as the 21st century.
Commonly known as the Fourth of July or July 4th, Independence Day brings American people together in a way that not many other holidays can.
The Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty symbolizes America’s independence and the freedom the country offers to all that enter. It was given to the United States in 1886 by France (shipped in 214 crates and assembled on what is now know as Liberty Island in the New York Harbor.)
The United States is a fairly young country, and the original birthday of the US was actually not that long ago. In 1776, the original thirteen states came together and separated from England with the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4. During this time, the brave Founding Fathers knew that the future ahead would be full of danger and risk to themselves and their families, but the importance of the country was greater than any one person.
Thus, in 1776, the United States of America was born. After years of extremely difficult fighting and war, the country came out on top and began its existence as a peaceful country. This was the defining moment for the country, and that is why Independence Day is of such great importance for American people even today. Without July 4th, there would be no America.
Independence Day – Placement on the Calendar
Due to the fact that the holiday is in the middle of summer time, there are countless festivals and parties all dedicated to celebrating this important day in the history and modern day USA. Also, because of its placement in the middle of summer, most traditional American summer time activities are in full swing by this time. These include water activities, beach trips, and cookouts and barbecues.
Activities for Independence Day
4th July day
There are numerous activities that have been associated with the Fourth of July, with most of them being of a celebratory fashion. Some of the most traditional aspects of the Fourth of July are as follows:
Fireworks. If you look at any piece of promotional literature for a July 4th party, you will definitely see photos of fireworks exploding in a brilliant fashion. Fireworks, while not originally American, have become the primary symbol of the holiday. Besides the Red, White, and Blue, fireworks are an exact symbol of the USA and Independence Day.
Barbecues and Cook-outs. One of the most traditional ways for Americans to celebrate all summer holidays including Independence Day is to host or attend a cookout or barbecue. Most churches will have one of these events for its congregation on the 4th of July, and many will use it as an outreach for the community surrounding the church. Typically foods at these events include hot dogs, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, French fries, kebabs, steaks, and vegetables. This is a good way for friends and family to get together during the holidays off from work.
Concerts. There are always a number of concerts which take place around the country on Independence Day. Some of the songs which will be played include “The Star-Spangled Banner,” “Stars and Stripes Forever,” and “America, the Beautiful.”
Travel. For those Americans who love to travel, the Independence Day weekend is a perfect time to do it. With having a long weekend, more time can be enjoyed at the destination than on the road. Typically, some of the most popular destinations include water parks, state and national parks, beaches, and the mountains. City locations are usually not as popular during the Fourth of July weekend. The United States is a naturally diverse country, with impressive landscapes in almost every state. The national park system is one of the great contributions that the US gave to the rest of the world, and these original national parks can be visited during the Fourth of July weekend.
Take the Day Off
Since 1938, the Fourth of July has been an official paid holiday for government officials. This gives Independence Day a special place on the calendar of the United States, as there are only a limited number of paid holidays on the calendar. It is likely that this day will never disappear from the American calendar.
While those who enjoy this day may not fully realize this, there is a long history of celebrations for Independence Day. Starting even during the Revolutionary War with England, Americans were setting up unique celebrations for this day. After the war, this day became a very special day used to unite the country in the midst of its quest to grow and prosper.
Unique Celebrations in the United States
There are a number of special events which are unique to specific places in the USA. The longest running Fourth of July event started in 1785 and continues to this day in Bristol, Rhode Island. This New England state holds a very notable parade. On Coney Island, New York, there is an annual hot dog eating contest sponsored by Nathan’s hot dogs. Started over sixty years ago, there is a joint celebration between Canada and the United States which climaxes with a large fireworks display over the Detroit River.
One of the longest running televised concerts is the performance by the Boston Pops Orchestra during a fireworks show in Boston, Massachusetts. In addition to this, the annual event on the front lawn of the Capitol building is also a long running favorite among urban Americans.
Independence Day, the Biggest Birthday Party in the World
As a celebration of the United States of America’s Declaration of Independence in 1776, Independence Day is recognized as a large birthday celebration for one of the world’s most influential countries.
Overall, this is a day of patriotism and pride for the United States. It is a large birthday celebration which all Americans can enjoy. Positioned conveniently in the middle of summer vacation, the Fourth of July is very fun because of the fact that almost everyone has time to take off from work and reflect on the United States and its history. While much of the original events of the first July 4th have been lost over the years, the overreaching concept is still intact.
For Americans, this vitally important day is truly a day of celebration.
Let the fireworks begin!
All Amendments to the United States Constitution
Amendments 1-10 BILL OF RIGHTS Amendments 11-27
Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
Note: The following text is a transcription of the first ten amendments to the Constitution in their original form. These amendments were ratified December 15, 1791, and form what is known as the "Bill of Rights."
Freedom of Religion, Speech and the Press, rights of assembly and petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Right to Bear Arms
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
Housing of Soldiers
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Search and Seizure
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Rights in Criminal Cases
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Rights to a Fair Trial
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
Rights in Civil Cases
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Bails, Fines and Punishments
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Rights Retained by the People
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Powers Retained by the States and the People
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. (ie: marriage)
AMENDMENT XI - Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.
Lawsuits Against States
Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
AMENDMENT XII - Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.
Election of President and Vice President
Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.
The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
*Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment.
AMENDMENT XIII - Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.
Abolition of Slavery
Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XIV - Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.
Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
*Changed by section 1 of the 26th amendment.
AMENDMENT XV - Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.
African American Suffrage
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude--
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XVI - Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
AMENDMENT XVII - Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.
Direct Election of Senators
Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. (before this, the state legislature decided who
the senators were)
AMENDMENT XVIII - Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed (taken back) by amendment 21.
Prohibition of Liquor
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
AMENDMENT XIX - Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. (Amendments giving women the right to vote were introduced in Congress for more than 40 years before this one was passed!!!!!!!)
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XX - Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.
Terms of President and Congress
Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.
The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.
AMENDMENT XXI - Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.
Repeal of Prohibition
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
AMENDMENT XXII - Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.
Limitation of Presidents to Two Terms
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
AMENDMENT XXIII - Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.
Suffrage in the District of Columbia
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XXIV - Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.
Some states once used these to keep poor people and African Americans from voting.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XXV - Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.
Presidential Disability and Succession
Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
AMENDMENT XXVI - Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.
Suffrage for 18-Year-Olds!!!!
Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XXVII - Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.
Congressional Pay Raises
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.
FEELING INDEPENDENTLY FREE TO BE YOUR UNIQUE SELF IS ONE OF LIFES GREATEST GIFTS. BE FREE TO SHINE BRIGHT LIKE A DIAMOND, OH SO BEAUTIFUL!
UNCONDITIONAL LOVE INFLUENCE....click on this link to read 1 CORINTHIANS 13
UNFORTUNATELY NOT EVERYONE WILL GET IT, NOT EVERYONE WILL DISPLAY UNCONDITIONAL LOVE IN THIS WORLD. JUST MAKE SURE THAT YOU KINDLY LOVE AND SPREAD LOVE ALL AROUND LIKE A WILDFIRE NO MATTER WHO, WHAT, WHEN OR WHERE!
MAKE SURE THAT YOU ARE LIVING AND CONDUCTING YOURSELF ACCORDING TO WHAT YOU DECIDE TO TAKE A STAND FOR. WHEN IT COMES TO DEMANDING JUSTICE, UNCONDITIONAL LOVE, FAIRNESS, EQUALITY AND PEACE FOR YOURSELF AND FOR OTHERS, TAKE A STAND NO DOUBT, STAND TALL AND STAND FIRM. I FREELY SUPPORT YOU. SAYING TO YOU TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU ARE BEING AND DOING UNTO OTHERS EXACTLY WHAT YOU EXPECT OTHERS TO BE AND DO UNTO YOU, WHEN IT COMES TO FAIRNESS, EQUALITY, LOVE AND PEACEFUL TREATMENT AND BEHAVIOR (VERBAL, MENTAL, PHYSICAL).
STAY BLESSED, PEACEFUL, HOPEFUL AND LOVING, NO MATTER WHAT IS GOING ON IN YOUR LIFE, AROUND YOU OR IN THIS WORLD BASED ON THE ATTITUDE OF OTHERS!!!!
EMBRACE, ENJOY AND HAVE A SAFE INDEPEDENCE WEEKEND CELEBRATION. There is sooooo much more I can share with you about FREEDOM, INDEPENDENCE AND LOVE. Bye, bye for now, I will talk to you again soon. But for now I will leave you with this final thought: Know what you truly deserve. Keep aiming high and do not settle for less than the very best. You deserve to be #1 and you are the one and only unique you. HOW ABOUT LEARNING TO LOVE, VALIDATE AND EMBRACE YOURSELF AND WHO YOU ARE AS A UNIQUE, INDEPENDENT AND POWERFUL FREE INDIVIDUAL. The opinions in which you have of yourself matters the most! MUCH OF MY LOVE IS TO YOU, ALWAYS,
With the Kindest Regards,
RYM-TYM and OH! Radio Show creator/host
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